The first section of the challenged enactment, entitled "Health and Safety Grants for Nonpublic School Children," [Footnote 7] provides for direct money grants from the State to "qualifying" nonpublic schools to be used for the "maintenance and repair of . We see no reason to select one label over another, as the constitutionality of this hybrid benefit does not turn, in any event, on the label we accord it.

Because of the manner in which we have resolved the tuition grant issue, we need not decide whether the significantly religious character of the statute's beneficiaries might differentiate the present cases from a case involving some form of public assistance (e.g., scholarships) made available generally without regard to the sectarian-nonsectarian, or public-nonpublic nature of the institution benefited. None of the three dissenting opinions filed today purports to rely on any such statistical assurances of secularity. I thought then, and I think now, that the Court's conclusion there was not required by the First Amendment, and is contrary to the long-range interests of the country. In the system-1 one pole is at ‘+3’, i.e. A table of estimated benefits from the tax modifications contained in §§ 4 and 5 was submitted to the legislators. All these provisions are precautions taken in candid recognition that these programs approached, even if they did not intrude upon, the forbidden areas under the Religion Clauses.". In Earle v. DiCenso, a companion case to Lemon v. Kurtzman, supra, the Court struck down a Rhode Island law authorizing salary supplements to teachers of secular subjects. In addition to Everson and Allen, THE CHIEF JUSTICE, in his dissenting opinion, relies on Quick Bear v. Leupp, 210 U. S. 50 (1908), for the proposition that "government aid to individuals generally stands on an entirely different footing from direct aid to religious institutions." So in above case pole at +3 will try to bring the system towards instability, but it is not necessary that the system is unstable. 4 are as follows: A.

The nyquist plot is as follows (Figure-5): You can see N=1. Allen and Everson differ from the present litigation in a second important respect.

The legislature. BURGER, C.J., filed an opinion concurring in Part II-A of the Court's opinion, in which REHNQUIST, J., joined, and dissenting from Parts II-B and II-C, in which WHITE and REHNQUIST, JJ., joined, post, p. 413 U. S. 798.

Id. The course of these decisions has made it clear that the First Amendment does not bar all state aid to religion, of whatever kind or extent. We recognized in Board of Education v. Allen, 392 U.S. at 392 U. S. 247, that, "private education has played and is playing a significant and valuable role in raising national levels of knowledge, competence, and experience,". See 397 U.S. at 397 U. S. 680, 694. [Footnote 38], The tuition grants here are subject to no such restrictions. Expressing a dedication to the "vitality of our pluralistic society," the findings state that a, "healthy competitive and diverse alternative to public education is not only desirable but indeed vital to a state and nation that have continually reaffirmed the value of individual differences. 413 U. S. 780-789. ", 392 U.S. at 392 U. S. 238. McCollum v. Board of Education, 333 U. S. 203, 333 U. S. 238 (1948) (Jackson, J., concurring). . ", Ibid. During the Colonial Era and into the late 1700's, the Anglican Church appeared firmly seated as the established church of Virginia.

But that distinction has not been followed in the past, see Quick Bear v. Leupp, supra, and is not likely to be considered. Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 268 U. S. 510 (1925). Sections 3, 4, and 5 (income tax relief) will not necessarily require, annual reexamination, but the pressure for frequent enlargement of the relief is predictable.

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