Once invalid data has been identified, it effectively becomes a completeness problem, which can be dealt with using the approaches described previously. Mergers & Acquisitions Database - MarketIQ, LINK MISSINGCross Channel Insight - ChannelView, Aperture Data Studio for Data Quality Leaders, Timeliness (often referred to as Currency). Now, in 1936, telephones were far from universal and were considered a luxury item. Third, the business might not fully understand the ripple effects of a data change. The six core data quality dimensions are  Completeness  Uniqueness  Timeliness  Validity  Accuracy  Consistency *Content adapted from “THE SIX PRIMARY DIMENSIONS FOR DATA QUALITY ASSESSMENT”, DAMA, UK Consistency: Is all the metadata consistent, or does it conflict with other metadata? While a business intelligence system makes it much simpler to analyze and report on the data loaded into a data warehouse system, the existence of data alone does not ensure that executives make decisions smoothly; the quality of the data is equally as important. Since it is possible to characterize a particular data element in many ways, there is no single definitive list of data-quality dimensions. In the business world, data need to be high quality in order to be used as a basis for business intelligence and for making business decisions. Examples of potential anomalies and observations that are documented include: Frequently occurring values (values whose frequencies are greater than expected), Infrequently occurring values (values whose frequencies are less than expected), Completeness (higher than expected number or percentage of null values), Frequently occurring patterns (patterns whose frequencies are greater than expected), Infrequently occurring patterns (patterns whose frequencies are less than expected), Value cardinality concerns (columns in which the number of distinct values is greater or less than expected), Unexpected values (values that do not conform to defined value domain constraints), Default values (frequently occurring values or nulls specified as default values), Orphans (records with foreign keys that have no matching primary key), Mapping concerns (consistency of values between columns in a single table or across tables does not conform to expectations), Relationship cardinality concerns (relationships that do not observe defined mapping expectations, such as when one primary record maps to more than one foreign record when the relationship is supposed to be one to one), Statistical variance (counts, durations, or other computed numeric values that vary from expected statistical norms). And a self-driving car controller would take in different streams of data from many sensors around the vehicle.

Data degrades day-by-day, so a consistent approach to entering the right data, cleaning data and importing good data will ensure that quality remains the same. Asserting uniqueness of the entities within a data set implies that no entity logically exists more than once within the MDM environment and that there is a key that can be used to uniquely access each entity (and only that specific entity) within the data set. It includes essential measures such as completeness/fill rate, validity, lists of values and frequency distributions, patterns, ranges, maximum and minimum values, and referential integrity.” Accuracy is actually quite challenging to monitor, not just because one requires a secondary source for corroboration, but because real-world information may change over time. David Loshin, in Big Data Analytics, 2013.

The reason (root cause) for the discrepancy should also be identified and fixed, if possible. This step complements the initiation by adding much-needed analysis. Different data sources exhibit different characteristics in terms of their conformance to business expectations defined using the types of data quality dimensions described in chapter 8. Each column has metadata associated with it: its data type, precision, format patterns, use of a predefined enumeration of values, domain ranges, underlying storage formats, and so on. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123742254000059, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124103894000076, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123737175000087, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128008355000099, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123737175000166, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123737175000208, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123970336000043, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123737175000117, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124173194000053, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123970336000067, The Practitioner's Guide to Data Quality Improvement, Different data sources exhibit different characteristics in terms of their conformance to business expectations defined using the types of, This process essentially employs data profiling techniques to review data, identify potential anomalies, contribute to the specification of, Measuring Data Quality for Ongoing Improvement, to identify those aspects of data that can be measured and through which its quality can be quantified. Data profiling can catch some of these issues, for example, a profiling tool can identify a pattern that Dell serial numbers all start with “D,” but HP serial numbers all start with “H.” In many cases, however, inaccurate data surfaces through an audit. To efficiently and effectively correct data problems, it is a must to clearly understand what the issue is, its extent, and its impact. The data quality assessment report documents the drivers, the process, the observations, and recommendations from the data profiling process, as well as recommendations relating to any discovered or verified anomalies that have critical business impact, including tasks for identifying and eliminating the root cause of the anomaly. However, there are many ways that process errors may be replicated across different platforms, sometimes leading to data values that may be consistent even though they may not be correct. Whilst it can be tempting to rush through towards implementing the sexier and more complex parts of your project, if it’s built on shaky foundations, that effort will be wasted. Accessibility: Is all that metadata you’ve worked so hard on easily available and usable to those who need it? Data quality dimensions function in the way that length, width, and height function to express the size of a physical object. When there is an expectation of uniqueness, data instances should not be created if there is an existing record for that entity. It’s important to have some quantified understanding of what the data accuracy is worth. Parsing and standardization tools can be used to validate data values against defined formats and patterns to monitor adherence to format specifications. They can be defined in many ways with slight variations or even overlapping context. A set of data quality dimensions can be used to define expectations (the standards against which to measure) for the quality of a desired dataset, as well as to measure the condition of an existing dataset. While different experts have proposed different sets of data quality dimensions (see the companion web site for a summary), almost all include some version of accuracy and validity, completeness, consistency, and currency or timeliness among them. Acuate’s Seven Dimensions of Data Quality: Completeness (Part 2 of 8) Accuracy (Part 3 of 8) Consistency (Part 4 of 8) These types of measures are generally intended to validate data using defined rules, catch any errors when the input does not conform to those rules, and correct recognized errors when the situations allow it. You can have the most ingenious, elegant, well-tested function, model or application — but what comes out is only as good as what goes in.


In a multi-domain MDM implementation, there are certain predefined data-quality expectations, such as the ability to link inconsistent data from disparate sources, survive the best information possible, and provide a single source of truth. Observations can be noted in reference to the tables or columns observed, the data quality dimension or inspection measured, such as completeness, consistency, and timeliness, as well as any special processes (other than profiling) used for measurement. We ultimately combined and compressed the initial set to the 48 types summarized at the end of this chapter and discussed in depth in Section Six. Consider a high-level meeting to review company performance: if you learn that two reports compiled from supposedly the same set of data reflect two different revenue figures, no one can know which figures are accurate, which could cause important decisions to be postponed while the “truth” is investigated.
We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The descriptions of the seven dimensions are part of this series of blog posts (eight including this one.). Garbage in, garbage out. If the data on which those decisions are made is not up to scratch, then the reasoning you base on that data will be flawed, with potentially very expensive consequences. These dimensions include (but are not limited to) the following: Uniqueness refers to requirements that entities modeled within the master environment are captured, represented, and referenced uniquely within the relevant application architectures. The first scenario gives you a parachute, the second gives you a headache and the third gives you a multi-car pileup in a puddle of melted Cornetto. Walking through the process of formulation will enable you to understand how the pieces came together and how they comprise an overall approach to data quality measurement.

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