The Sanxia Construction Corporation commenced work in January 2016. This ESCTER report was adopted on Saturday 12 October 2019 by the Economic and Security Committee at the 65th Annual Session of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly in London, United Kingdom. Her successor, President Moon Jae-in announced his own foreign policy initiative, the "New Southern Policy" (NSP), which seeks to strengthen relations with Southeast Asia. The draft report notes that official Chinese government documents list a set of benign goals for the project: fostering greater regional connectivity in Eurasia; enhancing trade, investment, and economic prosperity; deepening political trust; and maintaining closer economic ties among nations.

US officials have articulated the strategy as having three pillars – security, economics, and governance. It calls for the transatlantic community to hold out for another model of development and investment premised on principals of transparency, sustainability, liberal market principals, and good governance. The ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ (BRI) has since become the boldest expression yet of China’s global economic, diplomatic, and strategic ambitions.

[15], The stated objectives are "to construct a unified large market and make full use of both international and domestic markets, through cultural exchange and integration, to enhance mutual understanding and trust of member nations, ending up in an innovative pattern with capital inflows, talent pool, and technology database.

The initiative was unveiled by Chinese paramount leader Xi Jinping in September and October 2013 during visits to Kazakhstan and Indonesia,[14] and was thereafter promoted by Premier Li Keqiang during state visits to Asia and Europe. [102][103], In 2018, the premier of the southeastern Australian state of Victoria, Daniel Andrews, signed a memorandum of understanding on the Belt and Road Initiative to establish infastructure ties and further relations with China. [47] The bank began operation on 16 January 2016, and approved its first four loans in June.

[109][110], This article is about Chinese infrastructure projects in Asia, Europe, and Africa. Full text: Belt and Road Initiative China unveiled the principles, framework, and cooperation priorities and mechanisms in its Belt and Road Initiative. This includes political steering agencies, multilateral cooperation mechanisms, funding institutions, platforms, think tanks and relevant state-owned enterprises. "Reordering China, respacing the world: Belt and Road Initiative (一带一路) as an emergent geopolitical culture. Many of the loans agreed upon are in or nearing technical default, as many debtor countries reliant on exporting commodities have seen a slump in demand for them. [4], The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, first proposed in October 2013, is a development bank dedicated to lending for infrastructure projects. This report explores a range of challenges linked to climate change and considers recent international efforts to cope with…, Mediterranean and Middle East Reports (GSM), Visual Identity Guide / Guide de l'identité visuelle, The Secretary General and the International Secretariat, Chronological list of Assembly Presidents, 66th Annual Session | 18-23 November 2020, Committee on the Civil Dimension of Security, Mediterranean and Middle East Special Group, Rose-Roth Seminars & Parliamentary Training Porgrammes.
Christoph Hein: "Wie Amerika Chinas Neue Seidenstraße kontern will" in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 11 November 2019. In: Cheung FM and Hong Y-Y (eds), Chen, Yaowen, et al. 1.

The South belt runs from China through Southeast Asia and South Asia and on to the Indian Ocean through Pakistan. ", Jones, Lee, and Jinghan Zeng.

[104][105] Home Affairs minister Peter Dutton described BRI as "a propaganda initiative from China" that brings an "enormous amount of foreign interference" and "Victoria needs to explain why it is the only state in the country that has entered into this agreement". The board of governors is AIIB's highest decision-making body. "[92] European Commission Chief Jean-Claude Juncker and Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe signed an infrastructure agreement in Brussels in September 2019 to counter China's Belt and Road Initiative and link Europe and Asia to coordinate infrastructure, transport and digital projects.

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